Retraining and Refresher Training: Aren’t they one in the same?

I say no, not at all. Ask an Operations Manager and he’ll acknowledge that what it’s called is less important than getting the “assignment” done and entered into the LMS. He’s usually more concerned about the loss of productivity during the training than the effectiveness of the training at that time. It isn’t until later when the training may have to be delivered again (repeated), that the comment “training doesn’t really work” is heard.

Retraining is typically delivered as repeat training. Corrective Actions from *CAPAs usually trigger these types of required training events. In the context of the specific CAPA, we uncover the error, mistake, non-conformance or what I like to call performance discrepancy from expected outcome. It is believed that by delivering the training again, the cause of the discrepancy will be resolved. That is if the root cause was determined to be a lack of knowledge, skill or not enough practice.

Some folks believe that more is better and that with several repeated training sessions, employees will eventually get it right. It always amazes me that we find time to do repeat training over and over again but complain very loudly for refresher training, significant **SOP revision training or even new content training.   (*Corrective Actions Preventive Actions, **Standard Operating Procedures).Retraining Quote

Refresher Training implies that training was already provided at least once. The intention here is to review on that content.   A lot of regulatory training requirements are generated to satisfy this need. Common examples are Annual GMP Refreshers and several OSHA standards such as Blood Borne Pathogens training. While the aim is to refresh on the content, it is not necessarily meant to just repeat the training. Also included is the part – “so as to remain current” with current practice, trends and new updates. Hence, refresher training needs to include new material based on familiar content.

Upon Biennial SOP Review

There are some folks who would like to use this required SOP activity to coincide with the need to “refresh” on SOPs already read and/or trained. The rationale being that if the SOP hasn’t revved in 2 or 3 years time, more than likely the training hasn’t been repeated either. So, it sounds like a good idea to require that SOPs be “refreshed” upon using the same SOP cycle. One could argue for the prevention of errors; thus, in theory, this sounds very proactive.

But donning my Instructional Designer Hat, I ask you, what is the definition of training – to close a knowledge gap or skill gap. What value is there for forcing a mandatory “refresher reading” on SOPs just because the procedure is due for technical review? In practice, this becomes one huge check mark exercise leading to a paper work /LMS backlog and might actually increase errors due to “information overload”! Again, what gap are you trying to solve? In the above refresher scenario, we are avoiding a compliance gap by satisfying regulatory requirements.

Refresher Retraining

Defending Your Training Process

For those of you who have fielded questions from regulators, you can appreciate how the very training record produced generates follow up questions.   How you describe the conditions under which the training occurred or is “labeled” can impact the message you are sending as well. Calling it retraining instead of refresher training implies that training had to be repeated as a result of a performance problem not meeting expectations or standards. Whereas refresher training occurs at a defined cycle to ensure that the forgetting curve or lack of practice is not a factor of poor performance. It is a routine activity for satisfying regulatory expectations.

For end users, clarifying the difference between refresher training and “repeat” training in your Policy/SOP not only defines the purpose of the training session, it also provides the proper sequence of steps to follow to ensure maximum effectiveness of the training. There’s a difference between training content that is new /updated vs. delivered as a repeat of the same materials.   Yes, new and/or updated design takes resources and time.   How many times do you want to sit through the same old same old and get nothing new from it? Recall the definition of insanity – doing more of the same while hoping for change.   You just might want to review your Training SOP right about now. – VB

 

 

Mastering the Art and Science of Training: Use a systems approach for consistently effective outcomes

In the beginning of my training arena entry, I came across a definition of training that I still use today. Training is the sharing of knowledge and skills to others in an organized and planned manner that involves both learning and doing. A trainer’s job therefore, is to close the training gap between what the learner knows BEFORE and what the learner can do AFTER as effectively as possible.

TrngDefn

This implies that a series of actions can be repeated each time regardless of the content. Some folks refer to it as a process. But here’s where it gets confusing. We mix in the word system and then interchange system, process and even program when we describe training. So does a program mean a system or a course or a particular subject matter curriculum?

To make matters worse, there could be more than one process to accomplish “training”. For example, designing content is separate from uploading attendance into a database or how to qualify SMEs as a Trainer. In these organizations, “the training program” consists of mini-processes that are often fragmented and decentralized thus managed by multiple owners that frequently lead to conflicting work practices for training. The result is a broken training system that creates frustration for its end users and becomes a barrier for partnering with line management. We tend to see only our part and don’t fully appreciate the impact our decisions have on the other processes. So, it’s hard to think of training as a system.

It’s best to step back from the ownership perspective and think holistically about training from start to finish. Then chunk up segments like preparation, delivery and measuring effectiveness. Within these blocks, consider the inputs, process steps, outputs and the achievable outcome(s). It is perfectly acceptable to generate separate work instructions for these processes just as long as they are integrated back into the big start-to–finish picture with a logical process flow. Also known as SIPOC (suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers) process map. While variations of these formats exist, the main content includes inputs, value-added process steps, and the outputs. 

I also find it helpful for training system owners to have a high-level policy type document to describe the overall process flow and orient end users on where the processes are used in order to ensure the sequence is kept in order. The more procedures there are, the more critical these linkages become. But rather than having one all-purpose document that can total to more pages than desirable, SME teams collaborate on what makes sense for the organization.

When all the training pieces and parts are contained within the systems view, responsibilities for each process (or procedure) are still assigned regardless of the departmental reporting structure. The systems view promotes a shared ownership of the entire system, not just the individual processes. Thus ensuring a more consistent training experience from trainer to trainer as well as ensuring classroom sessions are designed and effectively delivered.  -VB

The Worst Classroom Training Nightmare?

Well maybe not the worst, but it’s the kind of stuff that makes a SME wake up in the middle of the night before delivering their first classroom session. Or cause a seasoned trainer to panic because she left the training rosters back at the other facility and cannot turn around to go get them! This is certainly not the way to begin a classroom session. Especially when the assignment is given last minute or with barely 24 hours notice to prepare and get mentally ready.

 

Yup, I’ve got it covered Boss.

And yet, there is an unspoken expectation about the SME’s ability to perform “like a full time trainer” because s/he is a subject matter expert and can train people. With all of the focus on the content, the perfectly worded slide deck, carefully designed activities, ample supply of handouts and possible workbooks, there isn’t any energy left to remember to do one thing more; except show up early for the session.   So SMEs are kind of lulled into a false belief that they’ve got everything covered. And then it hits them that they forgot (….). Any full time trainer can fill in that line with an example and true tales from their classroom experiences.

 

So what’s a classroom trainer/facilitator to do?

It’s called a Materials Checklist Job Aid and I don’t leave home without mine, anymore. The list contains items needed to run a classroom session. Don’t assume that these items are stashed in conference rooms just waiting for your use. Ever write with one of those dried out magic markers? Seriously, I carry two sets of flipchart markers: mine and for learners. Plan on using flipcharts? There may be only one sheet left in the room and it could be written on by the time you arrive. The checklist contains other items also needed for activities and a spare box of pens because I’ve experienced sessions where employees come to class without pens.

Using pent up energy wisely

I now customize the checklist for each workshop I deliver. I include notes about which flipcharts need to be titled before the session begins and those for after lunch. And sometimes, I’ll list key reminders like “Know Your Opening” and “Nail Your Ending” as suggested from SME as Classroom Facilitators workshop so I am modeling what I teach as well. Having this list handy in my leaders guide, allows me to focus my energy on greeting the learners as they arrive and not running rampantly around the room in a panic trying to recover from a forgotten prop.

 

If you aren’t yet using a classroom materials checklist, you need to get this one today. – VB  requetYourCopyNowArrow

Are your QTs becoming Duo-Purposed?

As Compliance Trainers, we are evolving again. This is a good thing, I think.   You see, years ago it was a lot clearer to distinguish between Classroom Trainers and SMEs as OJT Trainers. OJT was delivered 1-1 by “following Joe/Jane” around. Classroom Trainers delivered their content in a classroom for many using slides, flipcharts, and handouts. They were usually full time dedicated training staff.

Blog has now been merged with “Are All Your SMEs Qualified“.

(c) HPIS Consulting, Inc.

Using Neuroscience to Maximize Learning: Why we should start paying attention to the Research

In October 2015, I had the privilege to have a discussion with Anne-Maree Hawkesworth, Technical Training Manager of AstraZeneca, Australia before the 2015 GMPTEA Biennial Conference kicked off. Anne-Maree was in Orlando, Florida to present her concurrent session entitled Insights from ‘Inside Out’ – Employing lessons in neuroscience to facilitate successful learning” during the conference. As an avid fan and follower of the neuroscience literature being published, I was hungry to learn more and she generously gave up a few hours of her time to meet me with over a latte and a nibble of delicious chocolate from Australia.   What follows is a snippet of the exchanged dialogue.

Q: Why has neuroscience become so popular all of a sudden?

Actually it’s been around for a while. It’s not new, even though it sometimes seems that way. For example, look at Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve that is so frequently referenced. It was first introduced 1885. And there are other classic research studies available if you conduct a good search.

Q: Why do trainers need to pay attention to neuroscience and the recent literature?

Quite frankly, they need to start learning how to design their training using these principles. They have to stop lecturing from the slides and speaker notes.

Q: Okay, then what do they need to know?

Concepts like chunking, memory techniques, and the effects of multitasking. Multitasking is very bad for learning. You end up learning nothing. It becomes a waste and yet we are multi tasking now more than ever. For example, management is expecting us to do more. For example, take an e learning course and answer their emails while taking the course!

V- this means the design has to change.  AMH- exactly!

Q: We need help. What should trainers tell Management about neuroscience?

That less is actually more. Stop requiring us to dump more content in slides. We end up remembering less. If you won’t believe us, there’s scientific evidence to back up what we are saying! And don’t dictate how we use the classroom. For example, I have my learners standing for most of the sessions involving activities that I facilitate. In one of my sessions, I had removed the chairs from the room and used ZERO slides.   Imagine that! Oh and I love flip charts!

Bonus Tip: AMH shared a little secret with me. She revealed that Production folks like to do flip chart work. They just don’t want to be the spokesperson. So if you can get them past that, they’ll love being busy writing on the chart.

Q: I noticed that you didn’t include motivation in your slide deck. Was that intentional? How are they related?

I only had 60 minutes, but yes motivation is so very important. We have to keep them motivated to learn. We have to continually grab their attention.   It should be one of the 12 principles.

Q: Earlier you mentioned Chunking. What trends are you seeing in micro learning? Are you implementing any of it?

I am looking at small chunks of learning at the time you require the learning as opposed to “Just in Case” learning that tends to occur months in advance.  Micro-learning is great for follow-up to formal class room or eLearning to boost memory. I like micro-learning in the form of case studies and in particular branching scenarios. Cathy Moore has some great material on her blog and webinars on branching scenarios.

I also like to chunk information within my training and use lots of white space to help separate pieces of information, this helps in facilitating learning.

Q: I work with a lot of Qualified SME Trainers from Production.   How do you get past the brain lingo when you explain neuroscience?

You explain that there are parts of the brain that do different things at different times. There is no need to turn the session into brain science 101. I show them a slide or two and them move on.

Q: Earlier you mentioned “principles”. Can you elaborate on that?

I’d love to but we are near the end of our time together. I can recommend trainers look up John Medina’s 12 Brain Rules.  Briefly they are,

  1. Survival
  2. Stress
  3. Attention
  4. Sensory Integration
  5. Vision
  6. Exploration
  7. Exercise
  8. Sleep
  9. Wiring
  10. Memory
  11. Music
  12. Gender

Alas, I could have dialogued with her for the entire conference albeit, she was jet jagged and the latte was wearing off.   Thank you Anne-Maree for sharing your thoughts and effective classroom delivery techniques with us.   Together, we will shift the classroom design mindset.   -VB

Batteries Not Included: Not all Trainers come with Instructional Design skill set

So you are a Trainer. You know how to use Power Point (PPT) software and how to present in the classroom. Does this make you an Instructional Designer as well? Some say yes and others cry foul as they cling to their certificates and advanced degrees.   Instructional Design (ID) as a field of study has been offered by many prominent universities for quite some time and is now more known as Instructional Technology. Entire masters programs have been created to achieve this level of credentialing. So forgive me when I say, not every Trainer or Training Manager has the skill set or ID competency embedded in his/her toolbox.   It’s analogous to the toy box on the shelf at Toys R Us – “NOTE: Batteries Not Included”. Except in our case, the note may be missing from the resume, but definitely embedded into the job description! And for Compliance Trainers, the challenge becomes even more daunting to make GMP training lively.

Power Point Slides are only a visual tool

Interactive, immersive, engaging are great attributes that describe active training programs. But it comes at a price: an investment in instructional design skills. Using Power point slides does not make training successful. It’s one of the main tools a trainer uses to meet the objectives of the learning event, albeit a main one. It’s the design of the content/course that makes or breaks a training event. Yet, senior leaders are not grasping that just “telling them the GMPs” is not an effective delivery technique, nor is it engaging. Even if it’s backed up with a slide deck, its either “death by power point” or click to advance to next slide.   Koreen Pagano, in her June 2014 T & D article, “the missing piece”, describes it as “telling employees how to swim, then sending them out to sink, hoping they somehow can use the information we’ve provided to them to make it shore”, (p.42). To make matters worse, employees end up with disciplinary letters for deviations and CAPAs for failure to follow GMPs.

Look at the GMP Refresher outline for the last 3 years at your company. What is the ratio of content to interactivity? Oh, you say, those sessions are too large to pull off an activity? Rubbish, I respond. When I dig a little deeper, I usually discover a lack of ID skills and creativity is a factor. And then I hear, “Oh but we have so little time and all this content to cover, there’s no more room. If I had more time, you know, I’d add it in.” Koreen informs us that “training is supposed to prepare employees to be better, and yet training professionals often stop after providing content” (p.43).

Remind Me Again Why We Need Refreshers?

For many organizations the sole purpose of the training is to satisfy the compliance requirements. Hence, the focus is on just delivering the content. Ironically, the intent behind the 211.25 regulation is to ensure that employees receive training more than at orientation and frequently enough to remain current. The goal is to ensure compliance with GMPs and SOPs and improve performance where there are gaps. Improved business performance is the result and not just a check mark for 100% attended. And the practice of repeating the same video year after year as the annual refresher? Efficient yes, effective, well just look at your deviations and CAPA data to answer that one. When you shift your focus from delivering content only as the objective to a more learner centered design, your sessions become more performance oriented and your effectiveness reaches beyond just passing the GMP Quiz.

Cut Content to Add Interactivity

Unfortunately, full time trainers and SMEs have the “curse of too much knowledge” and it manifests itself in the classroom slide deck. STOP TALKING and get learners engaged in some form of activity, practice or reflection exercise. But please use some caution in moving from lecture to immersive techniques in one fell swoop! If your sessions are the typical gloom and doom lecture and you decide to jump right into games, you might have a mutiny in your next GMP refresher. Instead, you need to introduce participative exercises and interactivity slowly.   See No More Boring GMP Refreshers (impact story).

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Whose GMP Refresher is Boring NO More!

So how does a Compliance Trainer with limited ID skills and budget pull off a lively GMP Refresher? They attend GMP TEA Biennial Conferences year after year. During 2015 Conference, I will be teaching attendees how to move from passive lecture style GMP refreshers to active learner centered sessions via two concurrent sessions. One of the benefits of shifting to this design is the opportunity for learners to process the content, to make it meaningful for themselves and then associate memory links to it for later recall when the moment of need is upon them. This can’t happen while the trainer is lecturing. It happens during activities and reflection exercises designed to generate their own ideas during small group interactions and link it back to the course content/objectives. This is what Part 2 of the conference session is all about; brainstorming and sharing what GMP TEA members use for interactive activities related to GMPs. Visit gmptea.net for more about 2015 GMPTEA Conference agenda.

Hope to see you in both sessions! -VB

References:

Pagano, K. “The Missing Piece”, T & D, June 2014, pp. 41 – 45.

Rock, D. “Your Brain on Learning”, CLO, May 2015, pp. 30 – 33,48.

 

 

What will it take to gain access to HPI/HPT Projects?

It’s more than a name change.
Adding Performance Consulting to your department name or position title sounds like a good idea at first. You know, help get the word out and ease into Performance Consulting projects, right? Well not exactly. Adding it on is exactly what happens; possible projects get added on to your workload and the “regular” training requests keep coming. It becomes a non-event. Dana Gaines Robinson and James C. Robinson, authors of Performance Consulting, strongly recommend that you create a strategic plan for your transition. And that’s exactly what I did in 1997.

Technical Training is now known as Performance Enhancement Dept.
But not without first discussing my plan with my boss and then pitching it to his staff at his weekly meeting. My plan included the need for the change and a comparison of the traditional training model and the performance model. In this comparison, I listed the percentages of training to consulting ratios and where the shift would occur. Training was never going away, but that we would do less and pick up more performance consulting work instead. I used the now familiar line – training is not always the answer. (Back then it was a very edgy statement.)

And I included in my pitch, the recommended pieces from the Robinsons’ seminal book: mission, vision, guiding principles, services, responsibilities and even who are customers were by percentages. Key to this plan and acceptance, was that we never said no to a training request, but re-framed it into why and how will we measure success. If we couldn’t design a measurement strategy from the beginning, we were obligated to turn the project down. And the General Manager agreed with that guiding principle.

NOW OPEN FOR BUSINESS!
While we waited for feedback and project requests, I invited myself to a quality meeting about a GMP concern from a Line Trainer. When no one volunteered to complete a suggested task, I raised my hand and took the assignment. Cheers, we had our first project and we were now open for business. The task was then assigned to a direct report who thought I was crazy or evil, but I described how this assignment could catapult us into the limelight and showcase exactly the kind of performance work we were capable of doing. Intrigued but still doubtful, he took on the research task and I took on the rest of the project since I had the vision and could connect the dots. We got 3 more requests after we went public with our first project.

One of my best requests that first year was a request for Peer Mentoring. Oh did I want this project. I met with the requester and listened to his case. I researched the topic (remember this was 1997) and got some ideas about a possible solution. When I pressed on about measuring the success, he was vague and said, you know, as part of organizational awareness. I was in love with the topic and what it could mean for the operators and for the new PE department, but I could not find enough support to measure the success nor justify the time and resources to make it happen. We had to scrap the project request. This was the Evaluator Role coming out loud and clear. And this news got around fast. The PE department was not a dumping ground for someone else’s yearly objectives.

Okay, that’s great, but who does GMP Training?
During our success, we still managed the Compliance Training requirements as part of our agreement. Folks got so used to us and how we managed both the compliance side and performance enhancement requests, that we no longer had to explain what PE was and who we were. So upon biennial inspection from FDA, the inspector asked, “Well then, who does GMP Training”? So, I was asked to put Training back into our department name and become known as TPE: Training and Performance Enhancement which felt like we were back to square one. But the requests kept coming and the projects got much better.

My favorite project was the “Checking Policy”. It had everything going for it. Unfortunately for the company, a very expensive error was made by an operator and site leadership wanted him terminated. The GM who was our unofficial sponsor knew there was a better way to manage this and he needed to find the true root cause of the performance discrepancy, so he reached out to me. The rest of the story is long, so I’ll spare you the details, but three additional projects resulted from this request and all three included operators as my SME Team. This was unheard of at the time and really highlighted what an asset they were to the company despite the costly mistake. Turns out it wasn’t his fault, what a surprise!

Alas, the time came for me to leave that company and take on external consulting full time. When given the opportunity to reinvent myself once again years later, I reflected on the times when I was most engaged and excited about going to work. It was those Performance Enhancement projects that gave me such powerful examples of successfully aligning improvement projects with the business needs. But rather than do it again for one single company, I created HPIS Consulting instead so I could share the approach with more than one company.

So as this “Gaining Management Support” series concludes, I summarize all the related blogs with this final question and provide an overview as the answer.

What will it take?
Developing trust with business partners for starters. Ongoing skill development as an Analyst, a Change Manager, an Evaluator and of course, a Performance Solutions Specialist to build credibility. A good transition plan with vision for 1-3 years and tentative plans for year 4 and 5. And the courage to take projects no one else wants if you want to become a Performance Consultant bad enough. We did it and I’ve never been happier! -V

Gaining Management Series includes the following blog posts:

If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer …
Are you worthy of your line partner’s trust?
Wanted: Seeking a business partner who has performance needs
First, make “friends” with line management

If the only tool in your toolbox is a hammer …

A hammer is the right tool to drive a nail into wood or dry wall, etc. supporting the adage “right tool for the right job”. Until the closet you installed comes off the wall and you realize that perhaps you needed screws instead or an additional widget to support the anticipated load. It isn’t until “in-use” performance feedback is collected that the realization of a different tool and additional support mediums are needed. Providing training (as in formal instruction) as the solution to a performance issue is analogous to using a hammer for every job.

Site leaders want business partners who can help them succeed with organizational goals, yearly objectives and solve those pesky performance issues. The more valuable the “trainer-now-known-as-performance-consultant is in that desire, the more access to strategic initiatives. So, the more you want to be recognized as a business partner to the site leaders, you need to continue to build your “solutions toolbox” that includes more than delivering a training event or LMS completion report.

As we begin to wrap up this series on gaining management support, we’ve been exploring how to forge relationships with line managers and earn their trust by being trustworthy. In the blog (Are you worthy of your line partner’s trust?), I asked if you were also trust worthy as a Performance Consultant (PC).

Do you have the necessary competencies to tackle the additional performance solutions? A logical next step is to review the plethora of literature that has been published on the multiple roles for a Performance Consultant. These include Analyst, Change Manager, Solutions Specialist, and Evaluator. There are more, but let’s start with an overview of these four.

A trainer with strong instructional design skill could argue that s/he has loads of experience with 3 of the 4 roles sans solution specialist. To that end, ADDIE has been the methodology and the foundation for successful training events for years. A sound training design analyzes need first and incorporates change management elements and includes evaluation activities for level 1(reaction) and level 2 (learning) of the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model. So how hard could it be to master the role of Performance Consultant? Doesn’t every solution have a training component to it anyway?

Maybe and maybe not. As the traditional role of technical trainer evolves into Performance Consultant, the skills needed are evolving as well to keep up with management expectations for alignment with business needs.

The PC wears the hat of Analyst when working the business analysis and performance analysis portion of the HPI methodology honing in with the skill of asking the right questions and being able to analyze all of the contributing factors for performance causes. This is more than a needs analysis for designing a course.

The Solution Specialist role relies heavily upon systems thinking skills and is already way outside the power point training solution. As a problem solver working the probable causes from the Performance Cause Analysis, s/he opens the toolbox and can look past the “training design tray” into other alternative performance solutions. There is much more than a hammer in their toolbox. NOTE:  For more details on those types of solutions, navigate to paragraph “HPI Approach” within the blog link).  Implementation experience grows with each executed solution and a great PC also develops good project management skills.

During implementation, the PC may also have to wear a dual hat of Change Manager.  Process changes, culture change and more require strong facilitation skills and process consultation HPI roles for Perf Consulttechniques to manage the different phases of change depending on the nature of the solution and the size of the change impact.

And the Evaluator role surfaces at or near end of project implementation as the solution launches and goes live. Feedback collection, standards setting and re-assessing the performance gap to determine success or additional gap analysis.

The role of Performance Consultant requires more variety of skills and depth of project experiences. While training solutions are part of the PC toolkit, a training manager’s toolbox typically does not offer other performance solutions. It’s usually a hammer when a swiss army knife is what’s needed.  –VB

References: William J. Rothwell Editor, ASTD Models for Human Performance Improvement: Roles, Competencies, and Outputs. 2nd Ed, 1999.

Are you worthy of your line partner’s trust?

In this current series of gaining management support we’ve been exploring how credibility, trust and access impact or influence relationships with our business partners. In Stephen Covey’s, The 8th Habit: From effectiveness to greatness, he informs us that you cannot have trust without being trustworthy.  As Performance Consultants (PCs) continue to demonstrate their character and competence, their line leaders begin to trust them more and more.

From those initial getting-to-you-know-you chats (see previous blog)  to requests for help discussions, the give trust and return trust has been reciprocated and continues to strengthen the relationship. With each request / opportunity, PCs are demonstrating their character traits and further developing their Human Performance Improvement (HPI) technical competence and experience.

Following the HPI/HPT model gives the PC the ability to articulate the big picture of how this request, this performance gap, this project, relates to organizational goals thus illustrating a strategic mindset. And by following the related methodology, PCs demonstrate strong project management skills while implementing changes systematically; not just a quick course to fix a perceived knowledge gap or motivation problem.

So PCs become worthy of receiving their partners’ trust.  Line partners in exchange merit their trust by giving it. Are you trustworthy as a Performance Consultant? Do you have the necessary competencies to tackle the additional performance solutions? Stay tuned for more blogs on what those competencies are and why they are so helpful for PCs. In the meantime, check out the sidebar “Ten Steps for Building Trust” from Alan Weiss in Organizational Consulting.  -VB

How to Build More Trust

References:
Covey,SR. The 8th Habit: From effectiveness to greatness, USA, Free Press, 2004.

Weiss, A. Organizational Consulting: How to be an effective internal change agent, USA, Wiley, 2003.