Instructional Design: Not Just for Full Time Trainers Anymore

When I left the manufacturing shop floor and moved into training, full time trainers presented in the classroom using a host of techniques, tools, and relied on their platform skills to present content. Subject matter experts (or the most senior person) conducted technical training on the shop floor in front of a piece of equipment, at a laboratory station or a work bench.

For years, this distinction was clearly practiced where I worked. Trainers were in the classroom and SMEs delivered OJT. Occasionally a “full time” trainer would consult with a SME on content or request his/her presence in the room during delivery as a back-up or for the Q & A portion of a “presentation”. It seemed that the boundaries at the time, were so well understood, that one could determine the type of training simply by where it was delivered.

Training boundaries are limitless today

Today, that’s all changed. No longer confined to location or delivery methods, full time trainers can be found on the shop floor fully gowned delivering GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) content for example. And SMEs are now in the classroom more each day with some of the very tools used by full time trainers! What defines a full time trainer from a SME is less important, what is imperative however is what defines effective instruction.

Instructional Design is a recognized profession

What goes into good instructional design?

Believe it or not, instruction design (ID) / instructional technology is a degreed program offered at numerous colleges and universities. Underlying the design, is a methodology for “good” course design and really good instructional designers will confess that there is a bit of an art form to it as well. Unfortunately, with shrinking budgets and downsized L&D staffs, there are less resources available to develop training materials. Not to mention, shrinking time lines for the deliverables. So it makes sense to tap SMEs for more training opportunities since many are already involved in training at their site. But, pasting their expert content into a power point slide deck is not instructional design. Nor is asking a SME to “deliver training” using a previously created power point presentation effective delivery.

What is effective design?

To me, effective design is when learners not only meet the learning objectives during training but also transfer that learning experience back on the job and achieve performance objectives / outcomes. That’s a tall order for a SME, even for full time trainers who have not had course design training. The methodology a course designer follows be that ADDIE, Agile, SAM (Successive Approximation Model), Gagne’s 9 Principles, etc., provides a process with steps to facilitate the design rationale and then development of content including implementation and evaluation of effectiveness. It ensures that key elements are not unintentionally left out or forgotten about until after the fact like evaluation/ effectiveness or needs assessment. In an attempt to expedite training, these methodology driven elements are easily skipped without fully understanding the impact the consequences can have on overall training effectiveness. There is a science to instructional design.

The “art form” occurs when a designer creates visually appealing slides and eLearning scenes as well as aligned activities and engaging exercises designed to provide exploration, practice and proficiency for the performance task back on the job. The course materials “package” is complete when a leader’s guide is also created that spells out the design rationale and vision for delivery, especially when someone else will be delivering the course such as SMEs as Classroom Facilitators.

The Leaders Guide

Speaker notes embedded at the bottom of the notes pages within power point slides is not a leader’s guide. While handy for scripting what to say for the above slide, it does not provide ample space for facilitating other aspects of the course such as visual cues, tips for “trainer only” and managing handouts, etc. A well-designed leader’s guide has the key objectives identified and the essential learning points to cover. These learning points are appropriately sequenced with developed discussion questions to be used with activities; thus removing the need for the facilitator to think on demand while facilitating the activity. This also reduces the temptation to skip over the exercise/activity if s/he is nervous or not confident with interactive activities.

A really good guide will also include how to segue to the next slide and manage seamless transitions to next topic sections. Most helpful, are additional notes about what content MUST be covered, tips about expected responses for activities and clock time duration comments for keeping to the classroom schedule. Given all the time and effort to produce the leaders guide, it is wasted if the course designer and SME as Facilitator do not have a knowledge transfer session. Emailing the guide or downloading it from a share point site will not help the SME in following the guide during delivery unless an exchange occurs in which SMEs can begin to mark up his/her copy.

Using previously developed materials

I am not criticizing previous course materials if they were effective. But replacing clip art with new images and updating the slide deck to incorporate the new company background is not going to change the effectiveness of the course unless content was revised and activities were improved. For many SMEs, having a previous slide deck is both a gift and a curse.

While they are not starting with a blank storyboard, there is a tendency to use as-is and try to embellish it with speaker notes because the original producer of the power point slide did not include them or worse, provided no leader’s guide. The SME has the burden to make content decisions such as what content is critical; what content can be cut if no time. Perhaps even more crucial is how to adapt content and activities to different learner groups or off-shift needs. SMEs who attend a HPISC. ID basics course learn how to use design checklists for previously developed materials.   These checklists allow them to confidently assess the quality of the materials and justify what needs to be removed, revised or added; thus truly upgrading previously developed materials.

What’s so special about SMEs as Course Designers?

They have expertise and experience and are expected to share it via training their peers. But now the venue is the classroom as well. It’s training on course design methodology that is needed. SMEs and most trainers do not automatically have this knowledge. Some develop it by reading A LOT, attending well-designed courses, and over time with trial and error and painful feedback. The faster way is to provide funds to get SMEs as Course Designers at least exposed to how to effectively design for learning experiences so that they can influence the outcome of the objectives. This is management support for SMEs as Trainers. -VB

Moving from Lecture to Delivering an EFFECTIVE Lecture

While lecture has its merits, today’s learners want engaging content that is timely, relevant and meaningful. Yet, most SMEs tend to suffer from the “curse of too much knowledge” and find it difficult to separate the need-to- know from the nice-to-know content.

Presenting for them takes on a lecture style format. The thought of facilitating an activity gives most SME a case of jitters and anxiety.  So, in the “SME as Facilitator” workshop, attendees are encouraged to step away from the podium and use their eyes, hands and voice to engage with their audience. Easier said than done, yes. That’s why the course is designed to allow them to take small steps within the safety of a workshop environment.

But rather than trying to pull off a fully immersive session, SMEs as Facilitators are introduced to techniques that “liven up” the lecture. They are shown how to move back and forth from passive (sit, hear, see) to active involvement (write, construct, discuss, move, speak). This requires the ability to:

  • follow a well organized design plan
  • capture and hold attention of learners
  • use relevant examples and deviations if possible
  • show authentic enthusiasm
  • involve audience both directly and indirectly
  • respond to questions with patience and respect.

Great presentations are like great movies. They open with an attention-seeking scene, have drama and conflict in the middle so you stick around long enough to see the hero survive and they close on a memorable note. Using the movie analogy, a SME as Facilitator can open the session with something more than his/her bio. They can pick a notable career achievement that most folks aren’t aware of.  Keeping the interest alive, the SME can then draw the connection of content to the audience and address the WIIFM question on everyone’s mind. (WIIFM = What’s in it for me?)

While we don’t need to add to anyone’s stress load, overcoming conflict makes for great story telling. Case studies, major CAPAs, deviations and audit observations make it real life. Use of visuals especially diagrams is visually appealing to learners and keeps them engaged. (CAPA= Corrective Actions Preventive Action Investigations)

Thoroughness in the preparation reflects care and thoughtfulness. Learners appreciate the personal desire to deliver a more lively lecture. Therefore, I like to use the concept of a lecturette; 10 minute blocks of time to chunk up complex topics. Interspersing a 10—15 minute lecture segment with an activity whether self, small group or stand up at the flipchart, gives learners the opportunity to engage with new and/or more complex content in smaller doses.

Stepping away from the podium forces the SME to take action and allow the learners to “get up close” with the SME as Facilitator. This in turn is reflected in the learners desire to respond to questions and dialogue during a facilitated discussion. The rule of thumb for lecturing is approximately 20 minutes max. But with today’s technology buzzing away at your fingertips or on the tabletop, I’d say more like 10 or 15 minutes max if you are an engaging facilitator.

difference between a novice and wise teacher

Remember, the goal of a session is to maximize retention of the audience, not just tell them the content. Attendees learn more if the SME as Facilitator can focus their attention on the topic and deliver content that is relevant to their work situation. Involving the learners in a variety of ways is the key to effective lectures and great presentations. – VB

You might also want to get up to speed with current trend for SMEs – check out the blog post – Are your SMEs becoming duo purposed? Comments welcomed.

Moving from Presenter Controlled Training to Learner Focused Facilitation

The more trainer/instructor driven the course is, the less participation is required from the learner. For example, the instructor makes all the decisions about the course objectives and content, develops the course, delivers the course and conducts the assessment.

As you move along the Learner Participation Continuum, the
learner is required to participate more and the trainer does less “talking”. The learner acquires knowledge and skills through activities that s/he experiences with the assistance of a “facilitator”.  The facilitator is focused on helping the learners meet their needs and interests. It is through these first hand experiences and facilitated dialogue with other learners that thoughtful analysis and interpretation can become the focus of the instruction. The end result is that learners take full responsibility for decisions, actions and consequences.

Moving to a more Learner Controlled approach shifts the focus of the design from “deliver this content” to facilitate learning transfer for performance back on the job; which is after all the end goal for a training event. The new program includes opportunities for group participation, utilization of participants’ expertise and real life problem solving.

Learners are prompted to openly discuss issues and problems within the “learning lab”. Trainers become empathetic listeners as they create a climate of trust and safety. They become a Facilitator.

Of course, this shift also requires that site leadership and local management not only support the facilitated learning lab concept, but follow through on issues and concerns that surface. Failure to do so undermines not only the facilitator’s credibility but the entire training program. Wow, won’t this take longer to design, you ask?  Yes, in the sense that the design is now from the learner’s point of view. This means that the designer will need to research examples, collect data, and develop a story from an incident, a deviation or significant CAPA, etc.

The reward is that the Classroom SME stops talking and gives employees more engaging learning sessions. So learners become more accountable for participating and guess what – the SME’s session is no longer a boring podium speech. — VB

Silberman, M. (1990). Active Training: A Handbook of Techniques, Designs, Case Examples, and Tips.  Lexington Books, New York.

I’m in love with my own content!

Many QA /HR Training Managers have the responsibility for providing a train-the-trainer course for their designated trainers.  While some companies send their folks to public workshop offerings, many chose to keep the program in-house.   And then an interesting phenomenon occurs.  The course content grows with an exciting and overwhelming list of learning objectives.

The supervisors of the SMEs struggle with the loss of productivity for the 2 – 3 day duration and quickly develop a “one and done” mindset.   Given the opening to “train” newly identified SMEs as Trainers, the instructional designer gets one opportunity to teach them how to be trainers.  So s/he tends to add “a lot of really cool stuff” to the course in the genuine spirit of sharing, all justifiable in the eyes of the designer.  However, there is no hope in breaking this adversarial cycle if the Training Manager doesn’t know how to cut content.

I used to deliver a two-day (16 hour) workshop for OJT Trainers. I included all my favorite topics.  Yes, the workshop was long.  Yes, I loved teaching these concepts.  I honestly believed that knowing these “extra” learning theory concepts would make my OJT Trainers better trainers.  Yes, I was in love with own my content.  And then one day, that all changed.

 

Do they really need to know Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?

During a rapid design session I was leading, I got questioned on the need to know Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.  As I began to deliver my auto-explanation, I stopped mid-sentence.  I had an epiphany.  My challenger was right.  Before I continued with my response, I feverishly racked my brain thinking about the training Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) we revised, the forms we created, and reminded myself of the overall goal of the OJT Program.  I was searching for that one moment during an OJT session when Maslow was really needed.  When would an OJT Qualified Trainer use this information back on the job, if ever I asked myself?

It belongs in the Intermediate Qualified Trainers Workshop, I said out loud.  In that moment, that one question exercise was like a laser beam cutting out all nice-to-know content.  I eventually removed up to 50% of the content from the workshop.

 

Oh, but what content do we keep?

Begin with the overall goal of the training program: a defendable and reproducible methodology for OJT.  The process is captured in the redesigned SOPs and does not need to be repeated in the workshop.  See Have you flipped your OJT TTT Classroom yet?

Seek agreement with key stakeholders on what the OJT QTs are expected to do after the workshop is completed.  If these responsibilities are not strategic or high priority, then the course will not add any business value.  Participation remains simply a means to check the compliance box.  Capture these expectations as performance objectives.

How to align purpose of a course to business goals

Once there is agreement with the stated performance objectives, align the content to match these. Yes, there is still ample room in the course for learning theory, but it is tailored for the need to know only topics.

In essence, the learning objectives become evident.  When challenged to add certain topics, the instructional designer now refers to the performance objectives and ranks the consequences of not including the content in the workshop against the objectives and business goal for the overall program.

 

What is the value of the written assessment?

With the growing demand for training effectiveness, the addition of a written test was supposed to illustrate the commitment for compliance expectations around effectiveness and evaluation.  To meet this client need, I put on my former teacher hat and created a 10 question open book written assessment.  This proved to need additional time to execute and hence, more content was cut to accommodate the classroom duration.

My second epiphany occurred during the same rapid design project, albeit a few weeks later.   What is the purpose of the classroom written assessment when back on the job the OJT QTs are expected to deliver (perform) OJT; not just know it from memory? The true measure of effectiveness for the workshop is whether they can deliver OJT according to the methodology, not whether they retained 100% of the course content!   So I removed the knowledge test and created a qualification activity for the OJT QTs to demonstrate their retained knowledge in a simulated demonstration using their newly redesigned OJT checklist.  Now the OJT QT Workshop is value added and management keeps asking for another round of the workshop to be scheduled.  -VB

Are you ready to update your OJT TTT Course?

 

 

 

I’ve fired my [TTT] Vendor!  

Sustaining Qualified Trainer’s Momentum Post Launch

Calling ALL User Generated Tools Home

What do I mean?  You know, job aids, tools users have created, and SME cheat sheets.  I’ve even seen task instruction sheets, quick reference guides for completing forms, and process flow diagrams.  But I’m not talking about posters on the wall describing how to turn on the projector in the conference room.  In this 3rd issue of Making It Work for Compliance Trainers series, I blog about why creating and openly sharing user generated tools may not be a good thing in a regulated environment.

 

The Dilemma

As a Performance Consultant (PC) or HPT specialist, works with SMEs, Key Performers, or STAR employees, they invariably uncover or discover that their SMEs have “other” tools they’ve developed that helps them be so good at what they do.  While these are helpful to the key performers, it presents a dilemma for the PC who is also a Compliance Trainer or a QA Manager.  “If I expose the source of their secret sauce, will I break trust and create a barrier to the relationship?  On the other hand, if I don’t speak up about this tool, what assurance do I have that the content is approved by Quality Control Unit (per GMP) and is version controlled?

 

Why create them in the first place?

To get grounded, the PC/Compliance Trainer needs to perform a quick cause analysis upon the discovery of the tool.  Why was it created in the first place?  Is there information or steps missing from the standard operating procedure (SOP)?  Was this tool created to “chunk up” the steps or create bite sized training materials that evolved into a job aid?  Or is it a maneuver to by-pass the change control system?  The answers to the questions could provide the basis for a more user friendly revision or at least be officially approved as a supporting tool to the SOP upon the next version release.

 

What’s the big deal?

Rejection of product, deviation from approved written instruction that could result in adulterated product, additional follow up testing, and rework are all forms of waste to the organization.  Not to mention that consistency is the key to compliance and assuring public confidence in approved marketed products.  If folks are not using the approved procedure, then there’s an issue somewhere.

 

To what level of control is needed?

That is the most sought after question regarding job aids and user tools.  The answer lies in each company’s level of risk and their document hierarchy.  I’ve seen extreme cases where “NO Paper” on the floor means not even an SOP is allowed to be in hand.  I do believe that some level of control is needed to ensure that the content is valid, is in sync with the current procedure and users have the most current version of the tool.  Can your organization defend the level of control?  Are you sure about that?  Or do you use a “don’t tell and we won’t ask policy”?  Are folks making errors because they followed an uncontrolled worksheet vs. the approved procedure?

 

Tips for Establishing Level of Control

  • If the tool /job aid is tied to a procedure, it needs to become a required tool and included in the SOP.
  • Job aids should not be a standalone orphan.  It needs to have a procedure that it supports.  The use of the job aid is included in the hands-on training so folks know how to use it properly and where to access it if it is not “attached” to the SOP.

o   For example, some companies have a separate numbering system for these exhibits and the storage location may not be in the same folder directory as the parent SOP.

  • If more than one tool / job aid / worksheet exists per procedure, then an appendix or reference section needs to highlight the existence of these “tools in use”.
  • Establish an amnesty initiative to raise awareness for the quality and compliance consequences of using uncontrolled tools.

Calling all User Generated Tools Home

The purpose of the program is to allow users to admit that they have these tools and that no performance consequences will follow when they surrender them.  The second focus of the program is to find a proper home for these tools once they are deemed valuable.  They need proper care and nourishment.  In other words, content is valid, accurate, up to date and approved for use.  The PC/Compliance Trainer is the ideal conduit to make this happen.

 

One company that I visited did just that and more.  Once it was discovered that a series of mistakes was coming from an old tool that had been downloaded and copied to their desktop, a team of auditors was dispatched to observer the removal of all tools from employee’s desktops.  The 2nd phase of their program was the identification of an owner for the share-point site who now manages access and content revisions.  The 3rd phase includes a content/tool submission process that is vetted by a designated users group of SMEs.

 

Is it time for a Job Aid/Users Tool Amnesty Program where you work? – VB

Isn’t this still training?

To the newly minted and seasoned performance consultant, the answer is NO.  But for your client, internal customer or the VP of Quality, or whomever is your requestor, it still may look like “a training solution”, so don’t argue with them.  You do however, want to be able to explain why it is more than a classroom instructor led session or a quick and dirty PPT slide with audio recording.

 

If it looks like, smells like, tastes like training …

Then it must be training, right? Not exactly, but nod your head anyway; at least they are still engaged with you!  Any one of the elements of a Robust Training System is “training related”.  So for the less informed, this connection makes sense to them.  If your client/sponsor/requestor is more comfortable with calling it training, let them do so.  Don’t push the HPI label at this point.  First we work on raising their awareness with our early projects and successes.  Understanding and hopefully appreciation will come later.

 

What’s your company’s definition of training, anyway?

Most folks will envision instruction either classroom based, virtual instructor led or even formal eLearning course.  Their reasoning is that the gap must be a lack of knowledge and training is used to close that gap.  Is closing a skill based gap also considered training?  Most companies would define that as OJT.  What about “awareness training” and communication “training” sessions; are these considered training?  It is a form of closing a knowledge gap, the depth of the gap and the degree of required proficiency is the differentiator.  Again, what’s your company’s definition of training?

 

Closing Performance Gaps with the Right Solutions

The essence of HPI methodology is all about the right solution based on the data (evidence) and making an impact on the bottom line when the performance gap closes.  Is this training, you tell me?  How would you explain it to your sponsor?

 Not all HPI Solutions are Classroom Based

HPI Solutions

 

Talk about using knowledge to improve KPIs for a business unit

A team of site leaders met to discuss (problem solve) what to do about lagging metrics for a business unit.  The idea of studying SMEs (aka key performers) to learn what they needed to do to meet or beat the numbers was brought up.  I applaud them.  In fact, conducting Key Performer Analyses is part of the HPI methodology and is an excellent way to gather real data from experts.  However, the outcome was already biased with a set of “knowledge based” assumptions unbeknownst to the Performance Consultant (PC).  During the Key Performer Interviews, it turned out that those assumptions were brutally flawed and put this HPI project and another highly visible project in serious jeopardy.    The PC was able to uncover the right knowledge from the SMEs and successfully deliver a solution.  However, it was far from a traditional classroom training session.  Yet, it had everything to do with capturing secret sauce learned on the job.

Is this still training?  You tell me after you read the impact story.  -VB

 

NOTE: A more detailed version of this case –“Capturing Secret Sauce of Senior Equipment Operators?” is available. 

Next blog: “If it’s not training, then what is the right fix?”

 

Who is Vivian Bringslimark?